Then, when the test subjects were shown a completely new set of images, such as the letters N-E-U-R-O-N, the system was able to reconstruct and display what the test subjects were viewing based solely on their brain activity.
"We want to be damn sure that by the time [robots] become as smart as we are, they have a conscience and compassion and that we are friends.," Hanson said. "There’s no guarantee. They could be psychotic."
Zeno is himself a visitor from the future — a robot who reached consciousness in 2029, but is found by government web crawlers. From there he’s put into a government academy for artificially intelligent robots, where those in charge may have nefarious motives.
"The world will need a superintelligent hero," Hanson said. "Superintelligent agents are also able to spawn technology that could destroy us all." This narrative, crafted by Hugo award winner Tony Daniel and University of Texas performance professor Thomas Riccio, is intended to make Zeno into a character that people identify with and want to to see develop — something with the depth of a movie character or a figure from a Homerian epic. That makes Zeno into as much of a sociological experiment as it is a technical marvel or fun toy.
"The idea is to create a cultural phenomenon and accelerate the use and humanization of the technology," Hanson said. "Robots have gotten steadily more capable but humans’ expectations that robots should have minds keeps biting robot developers." Which is to say that Hanson wants Zeno to change robots and humans. Zeno has charmed visitors at Wired’s NextFest tech celebration for the last two years, including an ongoing run in the 2008 pavilion in Chicago’s Millennium park (open through Oct. 12). Still, Zeno is clearly a work in progress, prone to hip problems, battery issues or overly long diatribes about the singularity, when a wink or smile would be more charming. Zeno already does "know" people, and in his mind, has a knowledge container that stores a photo of the person and details about that person. The next step is getting Zeno to start making theories about the world, discarding the dumb ones and amplifying the plausible ones. That, according to Hanson, is the essence of intelligence, and once a robot can combine that ability with the knowledge available on the internet, superintelligence won’t be far off.
Hanson Robotics hopes to begin selling a mass market version of Zeno for about $300 starting sometime in 2010.
which will attempt to uncover evidence of warming temperatures on fauna and flora.
Corries are large circular, hollow depressions on a mountainside.
Climate change models predict a decrease in the amount of snow on the mountains into the summer.
SNH said observations had shown these snow patches had been smaller and shorter lived in the past 10 years than in the preceding 25.
Survey sites will be established in the Cairngorms and on Aonach Mor, Ben Dearg, Ben Alder and Ben Wyvis.
Backed by the Scottish Government, the project will investigate the effects of less snow and warmer conditions on plants such as moss and liverwort, and impacts further up the food chain on birds such as snow bunting.
The University of Bergen in Norway and Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh are also involved.
SNH said the project would build on the work done by scientist and mountaineer Gordon Rothero.
He said climate change had already influenced plant growth since he began his studies almost 20 years ago.
Mr Rothero said: “Comparison of the photographs I took of various snowbed sites in 1989 with those taken during this project last summer show clear changes in the pattern of vegetation.
“Analysis of the 2007 data from the plant communities on the sites shows some changes in species composition, but these changes are not easy to interpret.”
SNH estimated Scotland had 2,470 acres of snowbed habitat.
This area supports rare species, many living on the most southern fringes of their range.
Dr David Genney, of SNH, said: “Indeed these areas of Scotland could be said to have more in common with the mountains of Scandinavia, the high arctic of Spitzbergen and parts of Greenland than they do with the Carse of Stirling for example.”
Larger flowering plants, able to grow at higher altitudes because of warmer conditions, have been found taking over sites of mosses and liverworts.
Dr Genney added: “Any loss of this habitat will pose a direct threat to birds such as ptarmigan, snow bunting and dotterel which feed on the insects that live in the moss and so the impact will spread through links in the food chain.”
Environment Minister Michael Russell said the initiative was a “milestone” in understanding the influences of changing climate on high places.
This information will be fundamental in helping weather and climate agencies make better forecasts.
The satellite left Earth at 0746 GMT atop a Delta-2 rocket from the Vandenberg Air Force Base.
The spacecraft, built by Thales Alenia Space, represents the joint efforts of the US and French space agencies (Nasa and CNES), and the US and European organisations dedicated to studying weather and climate from orbit (Noaa and Eumetsat).
Jason-2 will provide a topographic map of 95% of the Earth’s ice-free oceans every 10 days. Although we think of our seas as being flat, they are actually marked by “hills” and “valleys”, where the highs and lows may be as much as two metres apart.
Elevation is a key parameter for oceanographers. Just as surface air pressure reveals what the atmosphere is doing above, so ocean height will betray details about the behaviour of water down below.
The data gives clues to temperature and salinity. When combined with gravity information, it will also indicate current direction and speed.
The oceans store vast amounts of heat from the Sun; and how they move that energy around the globe and interact with the atmosphere are what drive our climate system.
“The ocean constitutes the long-term memory of the climate system; the time-scales over which the ocean is changing are the climatic timescales,” explained Mikael Rattenborg, the director of operations at Eumetsat.
“In order to understand climate, in order to be able to predict the evolution of the atmosphere over months, years, and decades even, you need to understand the ocean.”
Jason-2 is a continuation of a programme that started in 1992 with the Topex/Poseidon mission and is currently maintained by the Jason-1 satellite launched in 2001.
The project provides the global reference data for satellite-measured ocean height.
Although other spacecraft in service today can acquire similar data sets, none can match the precision achieved by Jason-1; and Jason-2, when in service, will be the benchmark against which all other spacecraft will be judged and calibrated.
At the heart of the latest mission is the Poseidon 3 solid-state altimeter. The instrument constantly bounces microwave pulses off the sea surface. By timing how long the signal takes to make the return trip, it can determine sea surface height.
Additionally, the signal can indicate the height of waves and wind speed.
“It is not a revolution between Jason-1 and Jason-2; it is an evolution, because the main objective is to ensure continuity,” explains Francois Parisot, the Jason-2 project chief at Eumetsat.
“Nevertheless, there are some improvements in the instruments. We hope to make better measurements closer to the coast [and over inland waters and rivers]; and also, we will deliver near-realtime products – products that will be available within three hours of the measurements.”
The latter will be particularly useful in storm prediction. Jason will see the surface waters rise as warm eddies fuel hurricanes. The data will tell meteorologists how a storm is likely to intensify and allow them to issue better, more timely warnings.
Jason-2 data will have many other uses that may not be immediately obvious. Industry will take the information to make decisions about when conditions are most suitable for undersea drilling or cable laying.
Jason can help identify where wreckage or pollution will drift; and the satellite will assist marine biologists as they track whales by pinpointing waters with the potential to be prime feeding and breeding grounds.
One very important use will be in maritime navigation.
“Now that the fuel price is going up, saving fuel for the companies that run ships has become very sensitive; and knowing the currents, you can select your route so that you go faster and save fuel,” said Philippe Escudier, a space oceanography at CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellites), Toulouse, France.
“You can save up to 5% on fuel consumption by making best use of the currents.”
Jason-2 will spend its first few months flying a “tandem mission” with Jason-1.
The two spacecraft will be positioned so that they sweep around the Earth, one following the other, with a separation of just 60 seconds.
This will enable, essentially, the two satellites to measure the same patch of ocean surface at very nearly the same time.
Scientists will use this opportunity to cross-calibrate the instruments so that when Jason-1 is retired (or fails), the future data collected by its successor will be directly comparable with past records.
This continuity of information will be critical in recognising long-term trends in ocean behaviour. It is the data which underpins the observation that global sea level is rising by about three millimetres per year.
Once the tandem phase is completed, Jason-1 will be moved to the side, doubling the return of data. The importance of the Jason programme means both spacecraft will almost certainly be run for as long as they are serviceable.
Discussions are already in progress on a Jason-3 satellite. Given Europe’s role in the project, there is a compelling case for the next mission to be included in the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) programme. This would attract significant EU money.